CCC Study material in English, Computer Basic Knowledge, CCC Notes pdf in English 2024

CCC Study material in English

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Computer Basic Knowledge

CCC Study Material in English
CCC Study Material in English

CCC Notes pdf in English 2024



Let us begin with the word ‘Compute’. It means ‘to calculate’. We all are familiar with calculations in our day to day life. We apply mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, etc. and many other formulae for calculations. Simpler calculations take less time. But complex calculations take much longer time.

Another factor is accuracy in calculations. So man explored with the idea to develop a machine which can perform this type of arithmetic calculation faster and with full accuracy. This gave birth to a device or machine called ‘Computer’.



Computer is an electronic device. As mentioned in the introduction it can do arithmetic calculations faster. But as you will see later it does much more than that.

Therefore, we may define computer as a device that transforms data. Data can be anything like marks obtained by you in various subjects. It can also be name, age, sex, weight, height, etc.

What is Computer
Computer System

Fig. 1.1 Computer Full Form:

C                    Common

O                    Operational

M                    Machine

P                     Particularly

U                    Used for

T                     Training

E                     Education

R                    Research

So we can define Computer as a Common Operational Machine Particularly Used for Training, Education and Research.


Calculating Machines

It took over generations for early man to build mechanical devices for counting large numbers. The first calculating device called ABACUS was developed by the Egyptian and Chinese people.

Abacus Calculating Machine
Abacus Calculating Machine

Fig. 1.2 Babbage’s Analytical Engine

It was in the year 1823 that a famous English man Charles Babbage built a mechanical machine to do complex mathematical calculations. It was called difference engine. Later he developed a general-purpose calculating machine called analytical engine.

You should know that Charles Babbage is called the father of computer.

Modern Electronic Calculator

The electronic calculator used in 1960 s was run with electron tubes, which was quite bulky. Later it was replaced with transistors and as a result the size of calculators became too small.


1. First Generation Computers (1940-1956)

First generation computers used Vacuum Tubes. These computers were large in size and writing programs on them was difficult.


ENIAC: Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator

UNIVAC: Universal Automatic Calculator

Vacuum Tube
Vacuum Tube

2. Second Generation Computers (1956-1963)

Around 1955 a device called Transistor replaced the vacuum tubes in the first generation computer. Transistors are
smaller than vacuum tubes and have higher operating speed.

It is in the second generation that the concept of Central Processing Unit (CPU), memory, programming language and input and output units were developed. The programming languages such as COBOL, FORTRAN were developed during this period.


Example: IBM 1620, IBM 1401


3. Third Generation Computers (1964-1971)

The third generation computers were introduced in 1964. They used Integrated Circuits (ICs). These ICs are popularly known as Chips. A single IC has many transistors, registers and capacitors built on a single thin slice of silicon.

Computers of this Generation were small in size, low cost, large memory and processing speed is very high.

Example: IBM-360, ICL-1900, IBM-370, and VAX-750.

Higher level language such as BASIC (Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) was developed during this period.

IC Chips
Integrated Circuits

4. Fourth Generation Computers (1971-1985)

The present day computers that you see today are the fourth generation computers that started around 1975. It uses Large Scale Integrated Circuits (LSIC) built on a single silicon chip called microprocessors

Due to the development of microprocessor it is possible to place computer’s central processing unit (CPU) on single chip. These computers are called microcomputers. Later Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSIC) replaced LSICs.

The personal computer (PC) that you see in your school is a Fourth Generation Computer.


5. Fifth Generation Computer (1986-Present)

The computers of 1990s are said to be Fifth Generation computers. The speed is extremely high in fifth generation computer. Apart from this it can perform parallel processing. The concept of Artificial intelligence has been introduced to allow the computer to take its own decision. It is still in a developmental stage.


1. Speed

As you know computer can work very fast. It takes only few seconds for calculations that we take hours to complete. Suppose you are asked to calculate the average monthly income of one thousand persons in your neighborhood. 

For this you have to add income from all sources for all persons on a day to day basis and find out the average for each one of them. How long will it take for you to do this? one day, two days or one week? Do you know your small computer can finish this work in few seconds?

2. Accuracy

Suppose someone calculates faster but commits a lot of errors in computing. Such result is useless. There is another aspect. Suppose you want to divide 15 by 7. You may work out up to 2 decimal places and say the dividend is 2.14.

I may calculate up to 4 decimal places and say that the result is 2.1428. Someone else may go up to 9 decimal places and say the result is 2.142857143. 

Hence, in addition to speed, the computer should have accuracy or correctness in computing. The degree of accuracy of computer is very high and every calculation is performed with the same accuracy.

3. Power of Remembering

Computer has the power of storing any amount of information or data. Any information can be stored and recalled as long as you require it, for any numbers of years.

4. No IQ

Computer is a dumb machine and it cannot do any work without instruction from the user. It performs the instructions at tremendous speed and with accuracy. It is you to decide what you want to do and in what sequence. So a computer cannot take its own decision as you can.

5. No Feeling

It does not have feelings or emotion, taste, knowledge and experience. Thus it does not get tired even after long hours of work. It does not distinguish between users.

6. Storage

The Computer has an in-built memory where it can store a large amount of data. You can also store data in secondary storage devices such as floppies, which can be kept outside your computer and can be carried to other computers.  


A) Analog Computers: An Analog computers handle or process information which is of a physical nature, for example – Temperature, pressure etc.

B) Digital Computers: Digital Computers process information which is essentially in a binary or two state form, namely ‘0’ (zero) and ‘1’ (one).

Although they belong to the fifth generation they can be divided into different categories depending upon the size, efficiency, memory and number of users.

1. Microcomputer:  Microcomputer is at the lowest end of the computer range in terms of speed and storage capacity. The size of these computers is very small.

2.   Mini Computer: This is designed to support more than one user at a time. It possesses large storage capacity and operates at a higher speed.

3.   Mainframes: These types of computers are generally 32-bit microprocessors. They operate at very high speed, have very large storage capacity and can handle the work load of many users.

4.  Supercomputer: They are the fastest and most expensive machines. They have high processing speed compared to other computers. They have also multiprocessing technique. 

Supercomputers are mainly being used for whether forecasting, biomedical research, remote sensing, aircraft design and other areas of science and technology. Examples of supercomputers are CRAY YMP, CRAY2, NEC SX-3, CRAY XMP and PARAM from India.

C) Hybrid Computers: Hybrid computers are made by combining features of analog computers and digital computers. 


Today computers are use everywhere like Banking, Railway’s, School, Universities, Hospitals, offices etc.


1.    Input: This is the process of entering data and programs into the computer system. An input is the process by which we give some instructions to the system to perform a particular task.

2.   Processing: The task of performing operations like arithmetic and logical operations is called processing. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) takes data and instructions from the storage unit and makes all sorts of calculations based on the instructions given and the type of data provided. It is then sent back to the storage unit.

3.    Output: This is the process of producing results from the data for getting useful information.


Input Output Process
Input Output Process


The computer system is divided into three separate units for its operation.

1) Arithmetic logical unit,

2) Control unit, and

3) Central processing unit.


1. Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU)

After you enter data through the input device it is stored in the primary storage unit. The actual processing of the data and instruction are performed by Arithmetic Logical Unit. The major operations performed by the ALU are addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, logic and comparison.


2. Control Unit (CU)

The next component of computer is the Control Unit, which acts like the supervisor seeing that things are done in proper fashion. The control unit determines the sequence in which computer programs and instructions are executed.


3. Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The ALU and the CU of a computer system are jointly known as the central processing unit. You may call CPU as the brain of any computer system. It is just like brain that takes all major decisions.


Fig. 1.7 CPU (Processor)

Personal Computer Configuration

Now let us identify the physical components that make the computer work. These are 

1. Central Processing Unit (CPU)

2. Computer Memory (RAM and ROM)

3. Data bus

4. Ports

5. Motherboard

6. Hard disk

7. Output Devices

8. Input Devices


All these components are inter-connected for the personal computer to work.



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